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Lymphatic system is a subtype of the circulatory system in humans that consist of a complex network of vessels, tissues and organs.

This systems is often overlooked by ordinary people. It is not so obvious, it does not pulsate and has a bad reputation from Cancer, when all of a sudden people realize its importance.

You can think of it like a drainage system. As blood circulates through the body, blood plasma leaks into tissues through the thin walls of the capillaries. Lymphatic system removes this fluid from tissues, returning it via the lymphatic vessels to the bloodstream, and thus prevents a fluid imbalance that would result in a serious danger to one’s health. You can say that its main role is to maintain fluid balance in the body.

It is a one-way system. From the lymphatic capillaries, using its one roads called lymphatic vessels, through the lymph nodes, the lymph is returned to the blood circulation preventing in this tissues from swelling. It also provides a filtering system to the body by removing unwanted pathogens. Lymph is funneled into two main lymphatic trunks, which are connected to left and right subclavian veins at the base of the neck. Every day the lymphatic system drains and cleanses about 3 liters of lymph.

Its second major role is immunological defense. Lymphatic system helps protect the body against infection by producing white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help clear the body of disease-causing microorganisms. It plays a major role in production, differentiation, and proliferation of two types of lymphocytes—the T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, also called T cells and B cells. T cells gather in the inner cortex and B cells are organized in germinal centers in the outer cortex. They are like two brothers united in defending the house that is under a burglar’s threat. T cells and B cells filter the lymph of viruses, bacteria and fungi and play a role in maintaining a strong defense against pathogens.

A poorly functioning lymphatic system is a risk factor for the development of cancer and other chronic diseases.

How can you support this system to function at its best?

  • Exercise – one of the easiest and effective way to improve its function. Especially if you are using a mini-trampoline and use it for at least 10 minutes a day; this rebounding will greatly increase the lymph circulation.
  • Herbs – there is a handful of herbs with good modern evidence that they will detoxify the lymphatic system.
  • Massage and Dry brushing – there is specialized massage technique called Lymphatic Drainage massage.
  • Anti-inflammatory diet – lymphatic vessels are susceptible to destruction from unhealthy diets.
  • Hydrate – drink water throughout the day; add a slice of lemon in the morning with warm water on an empty stomach.
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Why herbal medicine is a complementary medical treatment today?

I have been thinking for a while now how on Earth the plants (botanicals) are now classified as a complementary medical treatment and allowed by the FDA to be sold only as “dietary supplement”. Seriously? How is this possible? And Why?
Let’s take it step by step.
Plasnts (herbal medicine) have been used for millennia to ease and treat symptoms and diseases. Excavations dated as early as 60,000 years ago found remains of plants like opium and cannabis. People have always tried to bring about relief from whatever illness bother them with some sorts of concoctions from plants. The first recorded documents about plants were dated as early as 1,500 BC in Egypt.
The way humans believed that plants were helpful was related with the “vital spirit” of the plant, the intrinsic energy of the plant that it was believed had therapeutic value. The whole plant. This concept lasts for 2,000 years until the beginning the 19th century when the scientist isolates morphine from opium and proved that morphine is as strong as the whole plant itself. This concept has led to the creation of the biomedical model of pharmacotherapy, in which it is believed that a single active ingredient is responsible for the curative value. Plants are seen simply as the sources of these powerful single chemicals. A simplistic and mechanistic view with profound implications for medicine.
Human bodies were also seen as a collection of parts (just like a car) and one part was diseased, we need to remove (surgery) or treat that part with allopathic treatments (pharmacotherapy).
This model is obviously inadequate to explain the complexity of the human body. Time and time again, this model has failed science and medicine in general and cancer is a good example that comes to my mind now. Likewise, the healing effects of plants, at least I think, cannot always be reduced to a single element.
The growing influence of Big Pharma managed to impose this model to the world. Plants were more and more push aside from the table. What it was only interesting was the potential to extract an active ingredient from a plant in order to patent it and thus to create monopoly and make Big Money. Lots of money in some cases. (I am thinking here the extraction of acetylsalicylic acid from the plant Willow spp. to create ASPIRIN- it’s been on the market for more than 100 years!… or the history of WARFARIN, which was isolated from the plant Melilotus ofiicinalis after cows that were grazing on it started to die from spontaneous and fatal bleedings).
The pharmaceutical industry has started to take these active ingredients and create synthetic versions that would resemble the natural molecules. In a study from 2012, of the 252 drugs that were classified Essential by the World Health Organization, 11% (28 drugs) were exclusively derived from flowering plants.
So, the synthetic spinoffs are OK and are considered conventional treatment but the whole plant is NOT OK and is considered dietary supplement? Does this make sense to you?

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Facts about Medicine

5 ways to increase life expectancy
1. Move more (spend more time outside).
2. Eat less.
3. Be married (to the right person!).
4. Have friends.
5. Own a dog.

5 ways to decrease life expectancy
1. Move less (spend more time watching television).
2. Eat more.
3. Be married (to the wrong person!).
4. Have enemies.
5. Own a wolf.

5 facts about animals in medicine
1. Animals permitted farming, and so civilization.
2. Animals, albeit without consent, add to the medical science through experimentation.
3. Animals provide therapeutic drugs, from the early days of insulin to novel drugs from the seabed.
4. Animals enhance people’s life expectancy: from eating fish to owning a dog
5. Animals enrich our lives

10 facts about medicine and literature
1. Greek classics described illness.
2. Hippocratic writings were the first to dispel magic.
3. Syphilis features liberally in Shakespeare, Dickens and Voltaire.
4. Vesalius’s On the Working of the Human Body (1543) revolutionized medicine.
5. Plague was the basis for Daniel Defoe’s A Journal of the Plague Year. His Robinson Crusoe was the first English novel.
6. The most famous literary doctor is perhaps Sir Arthur Doyle’s John H. Watson.
7. Doctors pop up where the story itself isn’t medical, as in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre and Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility.
8. Samantha Harvey’s The Wilderness describes the mind’s descent into dementia, and its effects on those around the sufferer.
9. Oliver Sacks recounted many fascinating cases.
10. Novelists are often doctors or health professionals, such as Somerset Maugham, A.J.Cronin and Michael Crichton.

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Distant history to disease

For the first few million years of their existence, humans lived in scattered groups of maybe 50 to 100 individuals, such low numbers parrying the pathogens that thrive on population density.

Civilization brought food and safety, but at a price. Jaw abscesses came from teeth shattered by fragments of stone used for grinding grain. Nomads had eaten more protein and vitamins, and taken higher caloric intake, than settled people with plainer diets who succumbed to dietary insufficiencies like Pellagra (severe vit.B3 deficiency), Marasmus and Kwashiorkor (both severe forms of protein-energy malnutrition).

But the over-arching threat brought by agriculture and animal husbandry was INFECTION.

Bacteria, viruses, worms and parasites, and intermediate hosts for many micro-organisms – fleas, mosquitoes, ticks and lice – began to co-exist, locked in evolutionary struggles for survival with humans. Adaptation allowed microbes to jump species and resides comfortably in humans.

Cattle (cows) spread tuberculosis and smallpox.

Pigs and ducks passed on influenzas.

Horses provided the common cold.

Dogs gave us measles.

Cholera, polio, typhoid, hepatitis, whooping cough and diphtheria organisms found human water supplies perfect spots to thrive.

Bacteria, fungi, rodent excrement and insects settled nicely into granaries (storehouse in a barn for grains).

Worms started to squirm and squat in humans, too: roundworms found their way from pigs to humans; the notoriously lengthy hookworms found the human gut an ideal place to enjoy themselves; and filarial worms brought beside the river blindness disease, the disarmingly disfiguring elephantiasis.

Stagnant water-filled trenches also proved perfect breeding grounds for a vector whose disease has remained a globally insurmountable cause of death and disease – the female Anopheles mosquito, and her protozoan malarial parasite Plasmodium – MALARIA. The worst kind, Plasmodium falciparum, spends its developing life, after mosquito bite injection, in the human liver and blood, parasitizing and destroying cells and provoking the deadly black-water fever and cerebral malaria. Moving from Africa to the Middle East, India, south China and the New World via shipping, malaria continues its global advance as global warming expands mosquito breeding grounds.

In short, disease settles happily in settled humans and has never gone away.


From the book History of Medicine by Tim Hall, MD


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Peruvian Cure for Impotence

They call it ‘The Peruvian Viagra’ and they say it’s great for you if you have a low sex drive. It’s the best aphrodisiac. ‘Extracto de rana’ (Frog juice) is in very high demand at local markets of Lima, Peru. It’s also heals stuff like asthma, bronchitis, sluggishness, but who cares about those…. The main aphrodisiac effect probably comes from one of it’s ingredients called Maca, which is a South-American plant known for it’s erotic powers. You go to the market stall and you pick your frogs from a tank. The vendor takes them out, kill them, peels the skin off them and she fills the blender with hot white bean broth, some honey, raw aloe vera and a generous portion of maca. Then she adds your plucked frogs and she turns the blender on. And voila, a delicious warm glass of frog juice!


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Our heart

Our heart beats over 100,000 times a day.

The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, and also assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle compartment of the mediastinum in the chest.

In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish in contrast have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

The heart pumps blood through both circulatory systems. Blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. In addition the blood carries nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body, while transporting waste to the liver and kidneys. Normally with each heartbeat the right ventricle pumps the same amount of blood into the lungs as the left ventricle pumps to the body. Veins transport blood to the heart and carry deoxygenated blood – except for the pulmonary and portal veins. Arteries transport blood away from the heart, and apart from the pulmonary artery hold oxygenated blood. Their increased distance from the heart cause veins to have lower pressures than arteries. The heart contracts at a resting rate close to 72 beats per minute. Exercise temporarily increases the rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health.

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What is life

What is life, exactly? This is a question that keeps biologists up at night. The science of biology is the study of life, yet scientists can’t agree on an absolute definition. Are the individual cells of your body, with all their complex machinery, “alive” from a scientific point of view?

Think about it for a minute. What sets apart the biological world from the world of non-living matter? The funny (and very interesting) fact is that no scientist on Earth can tell you where the fundamental difference between these two states lies. And conversely, neither of them can take something from the non-alive state and turn it into something that everyone would agree is alive.

The physicist Paul Davies in his book The Fifth Miracle has done most to try to elucidate a definition of life, but he too remains stumped for a final answer. He lists the attributes that an entity should posses in order to be classified as “alive”:

1. a living being that takes in energy and expel waste byproduct to gain itself energy (but Jupiter’s Great Red Spot does that too!)

2. it reproduces itself (but fires and crystals do the same things! and mules don’t!)

3. it has organized complexity – that is, it is composed of interdependent complex systems such as arteries and legs (but a modern car has the same things!)

4. it grows and develops (as does rust!)

5. it contains information – and passes that information on (the same thing does a computer virus too!)

6. it is autonomous/determine its own actions (like viruses – which exist at the border between chemistry and life!)


The scientists in the seventeenth century had the same problem trying to define water. There are many descriptions of water – it’s wet, thirst-quenching, it freezes and turns into vapor – but other substances also have these qualities. Once scientists discovered molecular chemistry, they could define water to everyone’s satisfaction as one oxygen atom coupled with two hydrogen atoms (H2O). Perhaps we need a similar revolution in scientific thought in order to define life? Or maybe there is something that is missing (and science can’t grasp!) in order to define LIFE?

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Why do men have nipples?

Because we are built to a common pattern. All people contain the genetic information to be either male or female, but in the vast majority of people only one alternative develops. All humans are born with rudimentary potential breasts. In the case of women they are triggered to develop hormonally as a secondary sexual characteristic. Men not only have nipples, but undeveloped (pre-pubescent) breasts.

It seems to me that all fetuses, male and female, initially develop as females. Hence the nipples. When the fetus’ pituitary develops and estradiol can convert to testosterone, then the male characteristics begin to show. Had there been no testosterone, the child would probably be a hermaphrodite. However, all humans have both estrogen and testosterone, so this is rarely a problem. The same chemical (FSH or follicle stimulating hormone) floods the secondary sex hormone. However, the conversion to primarily testosterone is what causes the male characteristics. Almost all mammals have nipples in both the male and females,proving this isn’t just a human thing but takes place in all species that use this form of reproduction. Anyway, they have entertainment value!

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About human body – Sneeze

Sneezes regularly exceed 160 km/h & nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 274 km/h.

A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane. Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease.

The function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to partially close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose. Because the closing of the mouth is partial, a considerable amount of this air is usually also expelled from the mouth. The force and extent of the expulsion of the air through the nose varies.

Sneezing cannot occur during sleep due to REM atonia – a bodily state wherein motor neurons are not stimulated and reflex signals are not relayed to the brain. Sufficient external stimulants, however, may cause a person to wake from their sleep for the purpose of sneezing, although any sneezing occurring afterwards would take place with a partially awake status at minimum

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